2021 WAEC Civic Questions and Answers Objective & Theory

[8/26, 9:36 AM] Olive: 1A


alues are precepts, moral principles, ideas and beliefs which people hold dearly and cherish, e.g. honesty, contentment, faithfulness, justice, tolerance, fair play and so on. Values are standard criteria which determine how the people of a society, nation or state think and relate with one another.
[8/26, 9:38 AM] Olive: 6a) Youth empowerment is a process where children and young people are encouraged to take charge of their lives.


(I) Life Coping Skills: These are natural skills which every organism including man, acquires from birth to adapt fittingly in his or its environment. They are survival Instincts or skills.

(II) Manipulative Skills: These skills are seen in skills acquisition centres as it involves economic activities that inculcate skills such as technical education.

(III) Intellectual Skills: These skills are coordinates in character. It is the literary or theoretical frameworks that guide the practical aspects of the works, economic and scientific undertakings

(IV) Communicative Skills: Communication is a very important aspect of our life. Man evolved communications skills as a social being to enable him pass or send information from one person to the other or from place to place.

(V) Artistic Skills: These are close to communicative skills and are more complex. Includes they art of good writing, fine and applied arts, music and drama. These skills make effective use of all the other four kinds of skills where necessary.

(VI) Loading
[8/26, 9:38 AM] Olive: 4a) A secret cult is a club or an organization whose activities, events, inner functioning, or membership are concealed.

[8/26, 9:47 AM] Olive: 7a)
I. Illiteracy And Ignorance:- Illiteracy and Ignorance are some of the impediments to the reality of the rule of law in Nigeria. This directly related to the masses who are the usual victims of human right abuses and abuse of power in Nigeria.

II. Inefficient And Corrupt Police System:- The Nigerian Police has a crucial role to play in the enforcement of the rule of law in Nigeria. According to a report by Network on Police Reform in Nigeria, Nigeria’s police force is over centralized, under-resourced and ill-equipped, and suffers from political interference.

III. Poverty:- Relatively close to illiteracy and ignorance is, poverty, sometimes, the latter is always as a result of the former. To ensure that the rule of law is protected, the independence and neutrality of the judiciary is sacrosanct.
Freedom of choice
Civil society is based on an individual’s freedom of choice. In the public and the private sectors, there is no voluntary work, but for the civil society, voluntariness is a central characteristic and strength. The willingness to help and to use one’s free time in a productive manner motivates Finns to participate in voluntary activities.

In civil society, citizens organize activities and services for themselves and other people out of their own hopes and premises. Fundamentally, civil society has no requirements from the outside, as is the case with the private sector.

Freedom from profit making
Civil society is able to adjust to the hopes, needs and desires of people as well as the changes of the surrounding environment. The lack of official duties and responsibilities eases adjustment and makes room for reactions. Neither can the heavy investments or the profit responsibilities of shareholders dictate the activities of civil society. There is room for creativity and new innovations.

Freedom from administrative regulations
In civil society, activities are provided and services produced for members and customers in a non-profit making ethos. One ideological cornerstone of civil society is the charitable nature of its activities.

The actors of civil society decide for themselves what kind of activities they engage in, although the financiers have begun to participate in the defining process more in the last decades. Project and targeted funding have become more popular, and outsourcing services have increased.
Question 9a

Pubic Service is a body or a department in the executive arm of the Government responsible for the execution of the policies and programmes of the Government

(i)It advices in the formulation of the policies of government and it implements government policies.

(ii)It advises the government and it creates employment opportunities.

(iii)It performs delegated /legislative functions and it provides essential services at cheaper rates.

(iv)It acts as governmental agent to the general public and it collects revenue for government.

[8/26, 9:54 AM] Olive: 8a) Popular participation can be defined as the process whereby the majority of the citizens in a state or country show interest in partaking in the affairs and decision making of the state.


(I) Create Urgency: People are far more likely to participate if they feel a sense of urgency. Let people know that there is a limited time to provide input by creating urgency in your calls-to-actions and marketing content.

(II) Be Hyper-Relevant: It can be tough to get people to feel urgency about a long-range planning process. It’s critical to connect your project with issues that are top of mind today.

(III) Solicit Earned Media: Media outlets are always searching for relevant content. Reach out to them and ask them to profile your project. Connecting with more informal sources, like local bloggers, can help you achieve game-changing results, without spending money on advertising.

(IV) Leverage Social Media Strategically: The key to social media success isn’t having a bunch of followers – it’s about the level of engagement with your community. Great social media campaigns require consistent effort, so make sure that you have a plan in place before starting.

(V) Offer Incentives: Incentives can be very effective. Use prizes and rewards to encourage your community to participate.

(VI) Raise the Bar High: Concrete goals lead to real results. Not only are specific goals the key to strategic planning, but they also serve as a useful motivational tool for you and your team
[8/26, 9:54 AM] Olive: (9b)

(I) Poor remuneration: A hungry man is an angry man. The civil service are poorly remunerated which causes them to take bribe. The salary they receive is not even enough for them to pay their children’s school fees. They are not well motivated

(II) Absence of skilled manpower: Lack of skilled manpower in the civil service causes inefficiency in the civil service. Therefore, any organization that lacks adequate skilled personnel in their organization, will find it difficult carrying out their operations effectively and efficiently.

(III) Poor human resources management: Human resources management recruits and train workers to work in the organization. But when the organization cannot manage their workers, the workers tend to leave the organization. Poor management of workers causes death of an organization

(IV) Inadequate materials or insufficient materials: Lack of materials for work causes inefficiency in the operations of the civil service. Government failures to provide those necessary materials that can facilitate work in offices contribute to the cause of ineffectiveness in civil service.

(V) Corruption: Corruption has eaten deep into the bones of our civil service, it hard to find a civil servant without the intent to defraud. When corruption continues to thrive in the civil service, it affects the general operations of the civil service.

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