Advance for today



Packaging is a process of designing and manufacturing an attractive container, wrapper, box, etc., where the products are wrapped, stored and sold to the customers or made ready for transportation. Packaging is an essential tool in marketing for boosting sales.


(i) Protection: Goods are to be transported from the place of manufacture to the ultimate consumer. This involves several types of risk. Packaging helps protect the goods from damage during transport and warehousing. It also removes the hindrance of risk by keeping goods safe and free from spoilage. Thus packaging helps make the transporting of goods easier and safer.

(ii) Attractiveness: Packaging counts an important part of the product brand and marketing. A unique packaging can increase the product attractiveness and thus affect to the willingness to buy the product. Packaging is as important as the product itself. Its purpose is to stand out from the shelf or website, enhance sales, provide relevant information on the product and augment interest.
(iii) Safety: Packaging has an important role in keeping its contents and consumers safe. Packaging should contain important information of the product and its safety. For example, for food products the packing date, best before date and a list of ingredients must be clearly visible on the packaging. No harmful chemical, smell, or taste should transfer from packaging materials to the food whether it is produced from virgin material or recycled material.

(iv) Sustainability: More and more consumers are paying attention to the packaging materials’ carbon footprint, re-usability and recyclability before making their buying decision. In fact how sustainable packaging is perceived, the more positive impact it has to the sales numbers.

(v) Identification: Packaging helps to distinguish from one brand to another. It is mandatory that packages contain the name of the product, the maker, the ingredients, date of manufacture, expiry date, etc.


(i) Lender of last resort: The central bank acts as a lender of last resort by providing money to its member banks in times of cash crunch. It performs this function by providing loans against securities, treasury bills and also by rediscounting bills.

(ii) Bank to the government: One of the important functions of the central bank is to act as the bank to the government. The central bank accepts deposits and issues funds to the government. It is also involved in making and receiving payments for the government. Central banks also offer short term loans to the government in order to recover from bad phases in the economy.
(iii) Custodian of Cash reserves: It is a practice of the commercial banks of a country to keep a part of their cash balances in the form of deposits with the central bank. The commercial banks can draw that balance when the requirement for cash is high and pay back the same when there is less requirement of cash.

(iv) Protecting depositors interests: Central bank also needs to keep an eye on the functioning of the commercial banks in order to protect the interests of depositors.

(v) Clearing house for transfer and settlement: Central bank acts as a clearing house of the commercial banks and helps in settling of mutual indebtedness of the commercial banks. In a clearing house, the representatives of different banks meet and settle the inter bank payments


Deed of partnership can be defined as a document that is drawn up by the partners of a business which contains the rules and regulations guiding the business. It is also known as a document which will clarify the different positions and duties of the partners in the business.


(i) Address of the registered office.

(ii) Amount of salary to be paid to each partner.
(iii) The rights and responsibilities of each partner.

(iv) Rate of interest on drawings.

(v) Rate of interest on capital.
(vi) Valuation of goodwill.


Transportation by pipeline is a method of transportation which involves movement of solid, liquid or gaseous products over long distances through pipelines. This mode of transportation is mostly used for transport of crude and refined petroleum products such as oil and natural gas.


(i) Liquid and gases can be transported in low cost. Even liquids can transported in form of slurry
(ii) In case of underground pipelines, the land in which pipeline is laid can still be used for agricultural use.

(iii) It ensures supply in remote areas where road ways are not very good, also it provides safe and secure supply for defence needs.


(i) Leakage in the pipelines can easily cause disaster especially in the transfer of material such as petroleum

(ii) All solid substances cannot be transported

(iii) Pipelines are probable targets of terrorist attack, therefore safety is a major issue


(i) Bill of Exchange

(ii) Letter of Credit

(iii) Certificate of origin of goods
(iv) Inspection certificate

(v) Insurance document


(i) Stabilization of internal price:

With the help of international trade the surpluses of the country could be exported to the other country and the deficits of one country may be made up by imports. This will ultimately lead to stabilization of internal price level.

(ii) Transfer of payment:

Foreign trade makes it possible to effect transfer of payments from debtor country to creditor country. The debtor country exports goods to pay for its debts to the creditor country.

(iii) Changes in the quality of labour and capital:

International trade brings about fundamental changes in the quality of labour and capital in trading countries. Trade changes the quality of the people teaches them to consume new things also use old things in new ways, change in technical knowledge results in specialization etc.

(iv) Facilitates debt payment:
International trade depends on the multi-lateral payment system which makes it possible to effect payments from debtor to creditor countries by enabling the former [debtors] to create the necessary amount of export surplus in the Balance of Trade. Thus there are numerous advantages arising from the exchange of goods between individuals living in different countries.

(v) Availability of commodities whose costs of production are high
With the help of international trade, the countries are able to acquire commodities which they cannot produce locally due to the nonavailability of factors of production, insufficient quantity, and due to high costs of production. Europe and Africa could get tea and penicillin, respectively, only because of international trade.



Marketing concept is a strategy that companies and marketing agencies design and implement in order to satisfy customers’ needs, maximize profits, satisfy customer needs, and beat the competitors or outperform them.

(i) Product: A product is any good or service that fulfills consumer needs or desires. It can also be defined as a bundle of utilities that comes with physical aspects such as design, volume, brand name, etc. The type of product impacts its perceived value, which allows companies to price it profitably. It also affects other aspects such as product placement and advertisements.

(ii) Price: The price of a product directly influences sales volume and, consequently, business profits. Demand, cost, pricing trends among competitors, and government regulations are crucial factors that determine pricing. Price usually reflects the product’s perceived value rather than its real value. This means that pricing can be increased to promote exclusivity or reduced to create access.
(iii) Promotion: Promotion involves decisions related to advertising, salesforce, direct marketing, public relations, advertising budgets, etc. The primary aim of promotion is to spread awareness about the product and services offered by a company. It helps in persuading consumers to choose a particular product over others in the market.
(iv) Place: Place involves choosing the place where products are to be made available for sale. The primary motive of managing trade channels is to ensure that the product is readily available to the customer at the right time and place. It also involves decisions regarding the placing and pricing of wholesale and retail outlets.


Gross profit is the profit a company makes after deducting the costs associated with making and selling its products, or the costs associated with providing its services. Gross profit will appear on a company’s income statement and can be calculated by subtracting the cost of goods sold (COGS) from revenue (sales). These figures can be found on a company’s income statement.

(7b)(Pick 6 only)

(i) The price of the product determines its turnover if the prices is very high, less of it will be sold, but if the price is low more of the product will be sold, resulting to high turnover.

(ii) If the product has a lot of competitors e.g. detergent, the turnover on the product will depend on the competing products. Thus, if the other products are not available in the market then the turnover of the product will be high.
(iii) The nature of the product will determine the turnover of the product. If the product is a necessity e.g. food-stuff then the turnover will be high, but if the product is a luxury e.g. electronics, cars, then the turnover will be low.

(iv) Advertising, publicity and sales promotion also determine the turnover of the particular product. The turnover of a product is usually increased by extensive advertising, publicity and sales promotion.

(v) The forces of demand and supply also determine the turnover of a product when there is an increase in the demand of a product, the turnover of that product will increase, but it falls if the demand for it also falls.

(vi) The Goodwill and reputation of the seller of the product also determine the turnover for that product. Generally, customers will run away from a seller that does not have good customer approach or manners.

(vii) Variety of goods offered by the seller: This also determine the turnover of the product. The turnover for a product will be high, if the seller has a lot of variety of products that are likely to attract customers to them.

(viii) Location of the business: It is more likely for a shop that is strategically located or in a highly populated area to make more sales than a shop that is in a hidden place or it is sparsely populated area.

(ix) Terms of sale: Shops that offers credit sales, discount or hire purchase facilities to customers can induced them to buy more form a particular shop than from others that do not.


(i) Trade Association: A trade association is a voluntary organization of independent business units in the same branch of industry, which conducts co-operatively activities aimed at improving the welfare of the group, which does not deprive its members of the power to make essential managerial decisions. Trade associations are formed by businesses which are engaged in same or similar trade. They are organized on a non-profit basis. Trade associations are formed for the protection and promotion of business interests of its members.

(ii) Chamber of commerce: A chamber of commerce is an association or network of businesspeople designed to promote and protect the interests of its members. A chamber of commerce is often made up of a group of business owners that share a locale or interests, but can also be international in scope. They will choose leadership, name representatives, and debate which policies to espouse and promote.


(i) Removing odd or unfair competitions; The chamber of commerce tries to eradicate any unequal or harmful competition among the member organizations and to keep the market of that product static. This ensures the existence of small factories and supports the large organizations.

(ii) Creating and Maintaining Favorable Business Environment; One of the important functions of the chamber of commerce is to create a proper and friendly business environment and to maintain it. It discusses to the government and undertakes different structured steps to create a business environment.

(iii) Creating and Maintaining Favorable Business Environment; One of the important functions of the chamber of commerce is to create a proper and friendly business environment and to maintain it. It discusses to the Govt and undertakes different structured steps to create a business environment.



(i) To provide essential services
(ii) To prevent monopoly

(iii) To prevent foreign control of the economy

(iv) To generate revenue

(v) To create employment opportunities


(i) Problem of large size: Some public enterprises are too large and unwieldy for effective performance.

(ii) There is lack of competition which leads to inefficiency because there is monopoly in a particular business.

(iii) There is the problem of political interference in the affairs of the enterprise and many key posts are filled by political supporters.

(iv) Inefficient management is a problem as most of the appointments are on political patronage and accountability is lacking/Large scale corruption.

(v) The bureaucratic system of decision making constitutes a problem to public enterprises.



Indigenisation is the transfer of ownership and control of business from the foreigners to the indigenes. It is a policy designed to increase the participation of citizens in the ownership and management business enterprises in the country.


(i) It leads to economic prosperity: The feeling of nationalism unites the people and they work for the economic prosperity of the country. They bear the burden of extra taxes in order to implement plans in the national interest.

(ii) It leads to social unit: Through nationalism the feelings of the high and low and cateism are banished from the minds of the people, and social unity is achieved. The nationalist leaders make the people understand with full force that our nation can progress and can have a prestigious place in the world only, when all disparities are removed.

(iii) Promote Culture and Literature: Nationalism has also gives great stimulus to art and literature, as it helped to develop group languages, traditions, history and culture etc. A culture is the history of the development of Nationalism and literature is its only image. It teaches the people to love their feelings and the gains and sufferings of their heroes and heroines.

(iv) A Source of Honour: Nationalism is the source of honor dignity and aggrandizement. Nationalism plays very important role at state level. When two nations anemically face each other for achieving dominance. In fact, it is nationalism of both the nations that encounter each other anemically. Success in this confrontation depends upon the strength of nationalism.

(v) It leads to the spirit of heroism and self-sacrifice: Nationalism creates the feeling of heroism and self-sacrifice. Every nation has to make several sacrifices for the attainment and protection of its freedom.







Show quoted text

The post Advance for today appeared first on Oliveloaded.

Source: Expo

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.